COVID and Witchcraft

You know how witches and shamans manage to stay in business? I had a friend who loved this kind of thing and consulted witchcraft providers constantly.

The shaman gives you a complicated routine that you have to follow to bring about the desired result. When it fails to work, the explanation is that you didn’t follow it exactly like you were told. If it didn’t work, the only possible reason is that you didn’t adhere 100% to the routine. Because if you had, it would have worked. And the fact that it didn’t work is proof that you didn’t do it right. Because if you had…. Etcetera, etcetera.

The official narrative on lockdowns and masks is exactly like this. If they don’t work it’s because you didn’t do it right because if you did it right it would work.

When my friend got sick, she didn’t go to a doctor. She kept going to these shamans who kept saying that if it didn’t work it was only because she wasn’t doing it right. We buried her in September of 2019. She was 51 years old.

65 thoughts on “COVID and Witchcraft”

  1. “When it fails to work, the explanation is that you didn’t follow it exactly like you were told”

    This is exactly like a couple of Russian shows I used to occasionally catch – one was an old blind woman (some kind of seer) who people sought out for advice, and another was people visiting fortune tellers.
    On not a single occasion were people able to follow the advice (and/or follow the ritual given to them).

    There used to be a lot of psychics and/or traditional folk/new age healers and/or other kinds of occult people in Poland (dating to sometime in the communist period or even before) and a lot of them did good business giving people (even some rich and successful people) advice… I have the impression that there are far fewer now… but that might just be my experience since I used to have a good friend who had a foot in that world (and without said friend I wouldn’t have realized how many of them there were around…)


  2. True, a journalist with no background in science or healthcare, Fox News talking heads, and Twitter are slightly better than shamans, but not much. I say we should place our trust on scientists and health care professionals instead.


    1. God, enough with the Fox News obsession already. And enough with the condescension.

      If a post about a dead friend sounds like a great pretext to make these childish digs about Fox News, I’m not the one with the problem here.


    2. “we should place our trust on scientists”

      Like the WHO which is finally admitting what the journalist with no background in science or healthcare and lots of other people (including lots of scientists) have been saying for a loooooong time – the PCR test is not fit for purpose which means that a large number of “positive” covid results (and fatalities) have nothing to do with the Wuhan virus…


      1. Every scientist who has questioned the faith in lockdowns and masks has been silenced. And remember the HCQ drama? HCQ is now being massively prescribed by actual doctors and it works perfectly well. Which scientists should we believe?


      2. I don’t know about PCR tests, how they work, or how accurate they are. To most healthcare experts, hospitalization rate is the most important metric. This metric cannot be faked and is not subjective or prone to large errors. People are either hospitalized or not, it’s a simple binary condition. If this metric was low, then no problem everything is good then; people can be properly taken care of. However, that’s not the case.


          1. The hospital I work at is completely at capacity — and for a hospital with an ED consistently at 150% capacity, that’s saying something. They’re starting to cancel some elective surgeries, but we’re still getting higher and higher specimen volumes. Are all of these hospitalizations really from COVID patients with complications? No. But the increase in hospitalizations in COVID patients with complications in my area is affecting hospital capacity.


            1. This is exactly the point. In California, 50% of ICU beds are being taken up by COVID patients. It’s not a massive number, but it’s enough to cause serious strain in the hospital system, which as you mentioned, results in the rationing of care.

              The problem is this is not just happening in California, or wherever you live. It’s happening all across the country and the entire world.


        1. “To most healthcare experts, hospitalization rate is the most important metric”

          But what are they being hospitalized for? If someone’s sick and tests positive for covid… the unreliable nature of the tests means they don’t necessarily have covid or that that’s what’s making them sick… and if that’s what they’re being treated for (and it’s not the primary source of their problems) then treatment could easily make them worse or kill them and… another covid death!
          This has become a self-supporting cycle by now where each new faulty assumption builds on others…. (I know that cycle when I see it…).


          1. How does this explain the fact that every week since the beginning of March, the weekly excess death has been superior than the previous year? The increased hospitalization, has resulted in a greater number of deaths than last year for every week since COVID started. Are they also faking death certificates?


  3. I’ve been thinking a lot about this theme lately, about the will to power in the fear of death.. Which is what I was harping on obsessively, to near point of stupidity, in the last thread here I commented on.

    I’m calling this impulse, essentially religious when manifested, gnosticism. It’s about being trapped by our own anxiety and fear, seeking to slake that fear by way of hedonism and power.. Which is to say the objectification of yourself and others in the instumentalization of one’s own will in the subjugation of reality and other people in order to achieve transcendence of suffering and death. It finds many (often superficially contradictory) expressions across the culture: in scientific materialism, bureaucratic nihilism, obsessive erotic anarchism, narcotic and pharmacologic escapism, ecstatic often ritualized violence.. In symbolic occultism and ceremonial witchcraft.

    A common essential thread in all of it is the application of “science,” technology, knowledge – often, even usually in some way esoteric, in the way any science is to the lay outsider – upon reality in order to resolve the vexing contradictions inherent in fallen material creation. What we call modern science is after all inextricably bound up with ancient and Renaissance hermetic tradition in its origin, after all. Astrology gave rise to astronomy, alchemy to chemistry, Pythagorean and other forms of numerology to mathematics, the esoteric Platonism of Ptolemy to physics.. Go read Newton; of how he began his study of physics in astrology, notice how 3/4 of what he wrote was an obsessive study and eschatological meditation upon the Solomon’s Temple in divining the signs of the Apocalypse.

    Gnosticism is the utopian impulse, fascist in its essence. It’s deeply embedded in our culture, in human nature, often in occulted ways, often very difficult to parse out or even detect. It usually presents itself as the quintessence of rationality, when the ironic paradox is that is its antithesis. It expresses itself in cult and bureaucratic behavior of all sorts: cults of personality culminating in fascist bureaucracy most especially.

    Go notice how Lincoln is enthroned in the new temple of Zeus at Olympia situated on the mall in DC facing the great feminine dome of the Capitol in hermetic opposition to the great phallic obelisk (555′ x 12″ = 6,660 inches tall) of Washington juxtaposed in between. That’s some serious Mesopotamian and Egyptian witchcraft there, my friends..

    Then go notice how Nancy Pelosi and Mike Pence have two fasces emblazoned up on the wall behind them in Congress..

    Call it the Faustian, Luciferian, Promethean impulse. Anthropologically and ontologically, Christians name it Original Sin. It is denial of and defiance of the divine Logos, the Dao. The denial of the Beatitudes as the essential ultimate law governing Creation. In psychological or pastoral terms it can be thought of as congenital spiritual sickness or distortion, the catalyst of chaos, the temptation to idolatry, annihilation and despair.

    The only cure or rectification of this disorder and sickness is love, which is to say grace. It is faith in the Source of these – which in this present vale of tears, where we see but through the glass but darkly, we depend upon humility and hope (grace, upon grace) – that is all that we need, and the only way we are able to survive.

    Grace – this love and hope – is the only thing that will break the grip of karma and samsara. It is the only way to free ourselves from the grip of entropy, to escape the vanishing still annihilation of Nirvana.

    In this way, Christianity is anti-gnosticism, practical agnosticism. It is humility and trust and innocence to the point of ignorance of occulted things. It is the placing hope of transcendence up on the Exterior Cause, and trusting like a child that in one’s profound weakness, need and ignorance, one is still (always, forever) safe.


    1. To put a blunt point to my thesis: COVID hysteria manifests itself in cult behavior – the cult of Fauci (I like to call him Fausti) magical masks and salvation by way of sacramental reception of the novel RNA vaccine for the novel virus.

      This anti-christ “cult of personality” dynamic also manifests itself in the hoopla and hypocrisy surrounding Trump.

      To be clear: I voted for Donny Tiny Hands, have a deep twisted affection for the man, and approve of many things that he has done. But in a healthy Republic he would not be President, and his enemies would not be foisting a translucently, near numinously corrupt mediocrities like Biden and Harris off on us. We’re in Adolf Schicklegrubber territory here, is what I’m saying.

      The conspiratorially and apocalyptically minded can do the eschatological math here:

      You don’t need Joseph or Daniel to crack that numerology. don’t need to tell you that it doesn’t look good.

      Could old Jared be of either the tribes of Mannesah or Dan? Idle, addled, inquiring minds like mine are wont to know..


  4. “To be clear: I voted for Donny Tiny Hands, have a deep twisted affection for the man, and approve of many things that he has done. But in a healthy Republic he would not be President, and his enemies would not be foisting a translucently, near numinously corrupt mediocrities like Biden and Harris off on us. We’re in Adolf Schicklegrubber territory here, is what I’m saying.”

    This is very insightful and honest. I also get the feeling that the love for Trump transcends rationality or even ideology.


    1. Yes, it’s completely irrational to vote for peace and against endless wars. Totally insane. What kind of an idiot can possibly rationally think that peace is better than war? Let’s go poke fun at those irrational bastards as we watch Democrats bomb another country into oblivion.


      1. Probably Trump’s greatest achievement was moving Republicans past being the Bush(or Reagan)-era war party. I hope the change sticks.


        1. Agree, not starting a war was his biggest accomplishment to me.

          In a perfect world, Bush and his cronies would be in jail. I still can’t believe he gets a pass for the war in Iraq. One of the biggest geopolitical blunders in recent history.


          1. We also had the best economy since I came to this country in 2003. His economic team was amazing. His foreign policy team was amazing. His Secretary of Education was amazing.

            Unlike Obama, Trump doesn’t have an inferiority complex and didn’t appoint a bunch of bumbling idiots to make himself look good in comparison. Trump is convinced he’s the best, so he appointed talented people.

            He also had the best to Press Secretaries in history. This was a truly successful presidency if you look at the facts and not at media howling.

            Liked by 1 person

              1. Sanders was excoriated by the left when she’s the embodiment of the feminist dream. A powerful, brilliant woman in an important role who’s fat and unattractive yet still self-assured, poised, and powerful. We should be putting her on posters.

                And McEnany! A young mother, with a baby girl, and still slaughtering with her professionalism, speaking back, never intimidated. Amazing.

                Liked by 1 person

              2. I know, right? Sarah Sanders is like, everything girls in the 80s were told was achievable. You can be anything! It shouldn’t matter what you look like! In the future, we’ll all be judged by our competence!

                Plus, she seems like she’d be loads of fun to go out drinking with.

                Liked by 2 people

        2. Me, too! And I’m looking around at all the other political topics where the genderhack lobby has got in and crapped the bed, forcing the left to distance itself… and there are so many things, things that people actually care about, that are now up for grabs, if the conservative faction wants them! We could become the champions of our national parks, of women’s rights, of dignity for the poor and working classes, freedom of speech, freedom of the press… it’s a wide open field right now, and anybody could pick those flags up. I guarantee there are a whole lot of people who care about one or more of those things, more than they care about forcing everyone to have the right number of sexual and racial minorities on their workforce. I’m particularly keen on snatching National Parks. What is more naturally conservative than conservation?


      2. I still don’t see how this explains the level of devotion and emotional outpouring that he receives from some of his more fervent supporters. It’s like he could never do any wrong. He himself has said he could shoot someone on fifth avenue and not lose any supporters. It goes way beyond what some of us consider rational.


        1. BLM literally shot people to death and destroyed fifth avenue together with many other streets and neighborhoods. Yet Democrats still praise it to the skies. Just last week, Kamala Harris described it in such glowing terms that she sounded like a religious fanatic in a cult.

          It’s cute how you are obsessing over a joke Trump made years ago and not noticing truly cult-likd behavior on your own side which actually produced a pile of corpses, including children’s and elderly people’s.

          And then there’s the crazy adoration of Obama who bombed out entire countries. Aren’t you people worshiping him like a deity in spite of the thousands he literally murdered?

          Or we can talk some more about Trump’s sense of humor.


          1. The cult of diversity and identity politics is also absolutely terrible and destructive. I am not disagreeing on that. As I have said before BLM, fluid gender theory, etc. are all absolute ideological dead-ends that only result in increased conflict and unhappiness for everyone involved. We will have plenty to talk about during the upcoming Biden administration.


              1. I want to see what Biden does before I place any judgment. My main concern is the polarization in this country, if he manages to not make it worse, that’s already a win for me. It’s a very sad state of affairs, I know, but it’s the situation we find ourselves in.


  5. The other people who like complicated and constantly changing regulations are big corporations because they have legal departments to keep track of the changes and cash reserves to ride them out. Small business can’t afford to keep adjusting and are eliminated from the market.


    1. Good point. We are witnessing the greatest forced transfer of wealth from regular people to corporate giants and every leftist in existence is cheering loudly.


      1. This is the one point that I can’t wrap my head around. I totally agree with you Clarissa, yet I don’t see how you can say Trump has done anything to address this issue. He had four years to do something about it, yet his single biggest economic accomplishment was lowering taxes for the same billionaires that are now benefiting the most from this pandemic.


        1. You are mistaken. I’m not a billionaire, and my taxes were lowered. The US dollar got a lot stronger. It’s back to collapsing since you voted for Biden but for 4 years it was great. Things were great for small businesses. Unemployment was the lowest in forever. Manufacturing started coming back. That was all Trump. And now it’s all over.


          1. I can assure you Jeff Bezos’ taxes went down much more than you.

            The fact that it’s all over, it’s why I say Trumps good economy was a mirage.


            1. It’s all over because of a pandemic. Which by definition is a global phenomenon. Economies worldwide are shattered.

              It shows how weak your argument is that you have to cite the damage from a global event as something to blame Trump for.


              1. I meant before the pandemic it was a mirage. I do not blame Trump for the current economy, which to be honest, even today it’s not bad either. I thought it would be much worse.

                It’s just that I don’t agree with giving Jeff Bezos and Amazon any tax breaks. Corporate taxes went down 17.2 percent in 2017 to 8.8 percent in 2018. That’s a huge tax cut for billionaires and massive tech companies.


            2. Lower taxes make it more profitable to manufacture stuff in America. If taxes go up again, they can move back offshore just as easily.


        2. Perhaps you need to get out more, get to know some small business owners, and people who live in the $60k/yr-and-under income bracket. My parents and siblings both benefitted on their taxes. We would have but, you know, we’re so poor we don’t pay any taxes anyway, so it’d be hard for us to get a better tax rate 😉


          1. Trump economy was a great economy. It became impossible to hire students on campus because they were better compensated working off campus. We had 100% job placement rate upon graduation and not because we are so great and our degree suddenly increased in value but because there were jobs. Compared to Obama times, gosh, it was a different planet.


            1. For real! My sister had been working crappy security jobs for years, because that’s what’s available, but thanks to Trump policies, she finally landed a regular 9-5 office job that she loves, that pays 30% more, and comes with benefits. Came just in time, too– she got assaulted on the job by some random crazy dude, and the injuries plus arthritis were making it more and more difficult to be out walking rounds in all weather.

              She’s really paranoid at this point that the incoming administration will take it away again.

              Liked by 1 person

          2. The amount that you, your entire family, Clarissa’s entire family, benefitted in tax cuts is a rounding error in the tax cuts that major corporations and billionaires received.

            Why should they get more tax cuts? Aren’t they rich enough already?


            1. I beg to differ. It hardly made any difference at all to the obscenely wealthy. What is another million to them? Meanwhile, to us, an extra $5-6k is the difference between being able to replace a dead car or not. Being able to fix the roof or not. In our case, it meant being able to replace our disintegrating house plumbing before any more pipes burst. The difference is HUGE.

              I’m trying to care about billionaires and their money, and I can see that you would like me to care about that, and perhaps engage in some envy about it, but I just can’t. I don’t know or care about those people, and I have nothing in common with them aside from basic biological functions. For all practical purposes, they’re space aliens.


              1. Trump halved their corporate tax rate. That’s not a mere millions, but hundreds of billions. They’ve calculated over $1 trillion dollars went directly to their pockets via stock buy backs.

                I’m totally on-board to lowering taxes for whom as you mention, $5-6k are a big difference. My problem is it was done while giving the obscenely rich even more.


              2. So? What difference does it make? Congress is going to spend us into default regardless of who is in office. In a situation where there was any spending accountability in government, any attempt at currency integrity at the Fed, or any attempt by Congress to spend only what it receives in tax revenues, I would care. That is not the world we are actually living in.

                It’s like freaking out about the shoplifters, while ignoring that the store is burning down. Why do you care?


            2. It’s always been interesting to me how many leftists are more interested in punishing the rich than helping regular folks. And how often they end up helping the rich while punishing regular folks.


              1. Precisely. As soon as you say “well, my life got better under Trump…” it’s like “OMG THE RICH ARE GETTING RICHER!!! BE ANGRY!!!” And you know, online I can’t tell, but invariably when it happens in person, the dude lecturing me about how unfair it is that “the rich” are getting $$$ is someone who is living on three times the income that supports my entire family of five. I friggin HATE being lectured about the evils of “the rich” by people who are in deep, deep denial about how rich they are. As long as someone else has more money than you, you must be poor? We’re not poor. I’ve met people who were: their kids were retarded from malnutrition. By global and historical standards, we are fabulously wealthy. We have a car, a washing machine, clean water, reliable electricity, internet, and our kids have never missed a meal. And there are millions of people who’d kill for that.

                And yet, people who have nice safe jobs doing nice clean things, and living lives of luxury unimaginable to most human beings who’ve ever lived, people who make three or more times my household income, want me to be angry about “the rich”. Who, exactly, do they think “the rich” are?

                As the kids say these days: I can’t even.


    2. The same thing happens constantly in agriculture. The regulations — which are blanket and affect farming operations of every size– are written by big-ag lobbyists who are eager to pile on all sorts of “safety” measures that are necessary for, say, feedlots and gigantic chicken-houses and industrial dairies. But when those same regulations are applied to a guy raising a herd of 20 cows, or someone with 30 hens who wants to sell to neighbors… they aren’t just unnecessary: they prevent the small operators from ever getting into the business. And that’s the whole point.

      Liked by 1 person

  6. I get awfully tired of people slamming billionaires as if it were a crime to be extremely rich.

    It’s true that Bezos and Bill Gates don’t need all their money and wouldn’t notice an extra $500 million disappearing each year if their taxes were raised, but it’s also true that it is their money, and the government doesn’t have the right to steal it and toss it to the winds in the name of a greater social equality.

    Also true that they already pay more money in taxes annually than most people will earn in ten lifetimes.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. This argument would make some sense if 2020 never happened. But it did. You saw how money was funnelled directly from schools to these bastards. How entire industries were destroyed to make them even richer. What’s the point of repeating these old truisms? They have nothing to do with what is happening.


      1. “You saw how money was funnelled directly from schools to these bastards.”

        How were they bastards because they were good capitalists?


        1. “because they were good capitalists?”

          Okay, boomer. Do you want mobs with pitchforks and torches, because at this point in time… that’s how you get mobs with pitchforks and torches.


          1. “Okay, boomer.”

            Ah, cliff, I like you — but don’t ever insult me by calling me a goddamn “boomer” again! I’ve already stated several times on this blog that I was a war baby, born as part of the “Silent Generation” while World War II was still raging.

            The Baby Boomers, born into peaceful, post-war luxury during the most prosperous period in American history, are the biggest spoiled brats in history (think Clinton, George W. Bush, Obama, Trump), but even they haven’t managed to destroy the unique wonder that American capitalism has built.

            As for today’s fantasized “mobs with pitchforks and torches,” they’re no threat — just a lot of overheated street posters and squeals, all piss and no prick. They’ll be gone by late January or soon after, and those among us who are financially well off will still be sitting like fat cats in gravy.


      2. Bezos and Gates don’t need to pay more taxes as individuals. It is Amazon and Microsoft which should probably be taxed more due to the monopoly rents they benefit from.


    2. The problem with these specific examples is that they are monopolists who engage in anti-competitive practices and need to be regulated as such.

      The situation for companies like Ford who have to compete with foreign competition is very different.


    3. Dreidel, the problem is not that they are extremely rich, the problem is that they are getting even richer and everybody else is getting poorer.

      Where as in your younger years people could easily afford a house and live on a single salary and have enough to live a comfortable life, that is no longer the case. The middle class is increasingly being hollowed out, and the working class is being driven into poverty. This is not a sustainable situation and giving more tax breaks to the already obscenely rich will not do anything to fix that.


      1. Poorer compared to what?

        Our income can still buy the things my great-grandparents’ income bought: A rattletrap car (what’s the modern equivalent of a Model T?), a tar-paper shack in the middle of nowhere, a few sucking pigs to raise into bacon…

        Or do you think that modern people should be able to purchase all the modern things, on the same amount of labor?


        1. // Or do you think that modern people should be able to purchase all the modern things, on the same amount of labor?

          Actually, partly yes …

          There is only a limited amount of labor a person can provide in a lifetime, while the standard of living has been rising for centuries, partly due to labor movements and in 20th century also because of fear of FSU alternative project.

          As for “all the modern things,” many of them like computers and Internet are very cheap, while f.e. price of flats in Israel has risen more than twice in recent years. “A tar-paper shack in the middle of nowhere” would be called a villa and cost a fortune 🙂 … or be unlivable and deem one’s family and children to the life of outcasts, the lowest in society.

          As for “a few sucking pigs to raise into bacon,” are we in the Middle Ages? Again, this would be very hard to do in my country and, if anyone tried, the costs could easily outweigh the ‘profits’. Since the latter was true in Ukraine, I suspect it may not be that different in America.


          1. What is money, if not a proxy for labor? Why should we be able to continually buy more things with the same amount of labor? Serious question. “Because it’s the current year” isn’t a satisfactory answer.

            The model-T, tarpaper shack, and hogs, were the actual reality that my grandmother grew up in, not medieval times– sorry if that offends you. My great-grandmother shot ducks to keep food on the table, and the kids slept four to a bed. You would not be allowed to do that, these days. But that doesn’t answer the basic question: why should labor in 2020 be worth more than labor in 1935?


            1. // What is money, if not a proxy for labor? Why should we be able to continually buy more things with the same amount of labor?

              For instance, since plowing a field with a horse demands more labor than doing it with a tractor, yet produces different results. 🙂 Money is a proxy for result, not how much somebody tried.

              Another reason is that money is supposed to provide an ability to have a certain position in society in addition to satisfying basic biological needs. Previously, kings lived w/o indoors plumbing, so?

              Also, if we apply this logic elsewhere, why should workers (including African American ones) today enjoy a better standard of living than sharecroppers of old? It’s not like they work harder.


              1. The difference between the horse and the tractor isn’t effort, or labor unions, or industrialization. It’s fossil fuel. That’s it.

                Fossil fuels have allowed the entire bonanza of increase in lifestyle expectations, and return on labor, that has happened since the industrial revolution.

                And fossil fuels have already peaked. Several years ago, if I remember right. The reasonable expectation is that, in fits and starts, standard of living should begin declining, until we are back to where we were before the fossil fuel bonanza began. Perhaps that’s centuries. Perhaps decades. Who knows? Our expectations will, of course, lag behind the decline in material abundance.

                There is no natural right for any of us to have more for our labor than our parents, or our grandparents. There is only oil.


              2. I guess then farmers will have to buy Elon Musk’s electric tractors. I think tech billionaires are going to keep getting richer no matter what happens.


  7. // And fossil fuels have already peaked. Several years ago, if I remember right. The reasonable expectation is that, in fits and starts, standard of living should begin declining, until we are back to where we were before the fossil fuel bonanza began.

    Nuclear energy. Other kinds of energy.

    We are not returning to the plow, no matter what.

    For humankind, the future is “succeed or disappear in a human-made apocalypse.”


    1. Nuclear energy is a subsidy dumpster. It has never been cost-effective even in the present, and it externalizes the cost of spent radioactive material on our descendants for thousands of years to come. How is that okay? At least with fossil fuels we deal with the concomitant pollution in the here-and-now, instead of foisting it all off on our unfortunate descendants, who will have to deal with the nuclear waste, without ever benefiting from the nuclear power.

      As for the “other energy”– what might that be? Wind and solar, which can’t manage continuous production and so run up against the eternal problem of storage? Whose components require fossil fuel inputs to manufacture? Hydro is great as long as you live near a river and don’t mind the extinction of the local migratory fish population. How much of the world’s population you reckon that accounts for?

      Are you betting, like my Dad, on some magical fairydust tech advancement that just hasn’t happened yet? He also bought that Francis Fukuyama BS back in the 90s where the tech-bubble economy was going to just keep going up for-evah! We all know how that turned out… But people are still eating Fukuyama’s mushrooms and dreaming instead about other limitless resources.

      Nothing in the material world is limitless.

      It doesn’t matter whether you or I want to return to the plow. History doesn’t give a crap what we want. It’s simply what’s going to happen, without regard for modern fantasies of eternal cheap energy. Maybe not in my lifetime, but eventually. There’s no natural law that says progress is a one-way ratchet. What do you think happened to the Roman Empire? It overextended itself, strip-mined its resource base (including its productive soils, a mistake we are rapidly repeating), and then spent a century or more losing territory, trade routes, literacy, culture, and technology– if you look at a progression of Roman coins from this period, you can see them get more and more primitive. The archaeological record seems to hold many examples of other civilizations following similar trajectories.

      Why should we be exempt? Are we smarter than our ancestors? Are our motives purer? Are we uniquely favored by God among all peoples?


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